There is no known preventive measure for type60;1 diabetes. Type60;2 diabetes can often be prevented by a person being a normal body weight, physical exercise, and following a healthy diet. Dietary changes known to be effective in helping to prevent diabetes include a diet rich in whole grains and fiber, and choosing good fats, such as polyunsaturated fats found in nuts, vegetable oils, and fish. Limiting sugary beverages and eating less red meat and other sources of saturated fat can also help in the prevention of diabetes. Active smoking is also associated with an increased risk of diabetes, so smoking cessation can be an important preventive measure as well.
Though it may be transient, untreated gestational diabetes can damage the health of the fetus or mother. Risks to the baby include macrosomia (high birth weight), congenital cardiac and central nervous system anomalies, and skeletal muscle malformations. Increased fetal insulin may inhibit fetal surfactant production and cause respiratory distress syndrome. Hyperbilirubinemia may result from red blood cell destruction. In severe cases, perinatal death may occur, most commonly as a result of poor placental perfusion due to vascular impairment. Labor induction may be indicated with decreased placental function. A Caesarean section may be performed if there is marked fetal distress or an increased risk of injury associated with macrosomia, such as shoulder dystocia.
Liver dump, dawn phenomenon and dawn effect are all common terms that describe the same condition. It is an abnormally high early-morning fasting increase in blood glucose. It usually occurs between 4:00 AM and 8:00 AM. It occurs in everyone’s body, but it has more impact on diabetics than normal bodies. It is more common in people with type I diabetes than in people with type II diabetes. Understanding the phenomenon can go a long way towards helping diabetics manage it.
Results from recent research suggest that people with type 1 diabetes may neglect precise self-care due to social fear related to fear of hypoglycemia. Type 1 diabetics may also neglect physical activity due to reduced perceived positive effects as well as increased perceived negative aspects of that activity.
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One theory proposes that type60;1 diabetes is a virus-triggered autoimmune response in which the immune system attacks virus-infected cells along with the beta cells in the pancreas. The Coxsackie virus family or rubella is implicated, although the evidence is inconclusive. In type60;1, pancreatic beta cells in the islets of Langerhans are destroyed, decreasing endogenous insulin production. This distinguishes type60;1’s origin from type60; The type of diabetes a patient has is determined only by the cause-fundamentally by whether the patient is insulin resistant (type60;2) or insulin deficient without insulin resistance (type60;1).
Metformin is generally recommended as a first line treatment for type60;2 diabetes, as there is good evidence that it decreases mortality. Routine use of aspirin, however, has not been found to improve outcomes in uncomplicated diabetes. Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) improve outcomes in those with DM while the similar medications angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) do not.
“Brittle” diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes or labile diabetes, is a term that was traditionally used to describe the dramatic and recurrent swings in glucose levels, often occurring for no apparent reason in insulin-dependent diabetes. This term, however, has no biologic basis and should not be used. Still, type60;1 diabetes can be accompanied by irregular and unpredictable hyperglycemia, frequently with ketosis, and sometimes with serious hypoglycemia. Other complications include an impaired counterregulatory response to hypoglycemia, infection, gastroparesis (which leads to erratic absorption of dietary carbohydrates), and endocrinopathies (e.g., Addison’s disease). These phenomena are believed to occur no more frequently than in 1% to 2% of persons with type60;1 diabetes.